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The information contained in these resources does not necessarily reflect the views of the Partnership for Patients, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, The United States Department of Health and Human Services, nor the United States government.

Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia
Title Description
“Guidelines for Prevention of Nosocomial Pneumonia” (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]) This document updates and replaces CDC’s previously published “Guidelines for Prevention of Nosocomial Pneumonia” (Infect Control 1982;3:327-33, Respir Care 1983;28:221-32, and Am J Infect Control 1983;11:230-44). This revised guideline is designed to reduce the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia and is intended for use by personnel who are responsible for surveillance and control of infections in acute-care hospitals; the information may not be applicable in long-term-care facilities because of the unique characteristics of such settings.
Guide to the Elimination of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology [APIC]) [PDF, 1.12MB] The purpose of this guide is to provide evidence-based practice guidelines for the elimination of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).
Preventing Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (APIC) [PDF, 82KB] This educational brochure developed by APIC discusses strategies to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia.
“Round-the-Clock Intensivists Eliminate Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia, Central Line Infections, and Pressure Ulcers in Intensive Care Unit” (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality [AHRQ]) This innovation profile from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality discusses how Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas was able to eliminate ventilator-associated pneumonia, central line infections, and pressure ulcers in Intensive Care Units.
“Safe Critical Care Project: Testing Improvement Strategies” (AHRQ) This quality tool provided by AHRQ and developed by the Hospital Corporation of America provides an intervention toolkit for reducing ventilator-associated pneumonia.
“Comprehensive Initiative to Create a Culture of Safety Significantly Reduces Harm Caused by Medical Errors, Length of Stay, and Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia and Infections” (AHRQ) This innovation profile from AHRQ highlights Sentara Healthcare’s implementation of an initiative to create and sustain a culture of safety in 2002. This effort led to significantly improved patient outcomes, including reducing patient harm caused by errors, mortality rates and length of stay in the intensive care unit, and hospital-acquired pneumonia and infection rates.
“Evidence-Based Bundle for Adults is Adapted by Pediatric Intensive Care Units, Reducing Ventilator-Acquired Pneumonia and Lowering Costs” (AHRQ) This innovation profile provided by AHRQ highlights Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta and how they developed and implemented a program to reduce incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in three intensive care units, including two pediatric intensive care units and one cardiac intensive care unit.
“Daily Multidisciplinary Patient Rounds and Best Practice Bundle Decrease Use of Ventilators in the Intensive Care Unit” (AHRQ) The implementation of daily multidisciplinary patient rounds and a bundle of best practice guidelines reduced the use of ventilators for patients in the intensive care unit and enhanced communication among physicians and nurses in a hospital with private practice physicians and no advanced practice nurses.
“Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (Pediatric Supplement)” (Institute for Healthcare Improvement [IHI]) How-to Guide specifically tailored for pediatrics describes key evidence-based care components for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), describes how to implement these interventions, and recommends measures to gauge improvement
“Implement the IHI Ventilator Bundle” (IHI) This Web site documents the importance of working to decrease ventilator-associated pneumonia, discusses the key components of the IHI Ventilator Bundle, and provides resources to implement the bundle.
“Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia” (IHI) This How-to Guide describes key evidence-based care components for the IHI Ventilator Bundle, which has been linked to reductions in ventilator-associated pneumonia in ventilated patients in intensive care, describes how to implement these interventions, and recommends measures to gauge improvement.
“Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia” (IHI) This Web site provides tools and resources that will help a hospital work towards preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia. This site also includes resources on measures to guide the improvement.
“Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Getting to Zero … and Staying There” (IHI) This site provides stories from hospitals that have successfully improved their Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia rates. Many of the hospitals highlighted have been able to get to zero and stay there.
“Sample Business Case for Reducing Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia” (IHI) “Safe & Sound: An Arizona Patient Safety Initiative” through the Arizona Hospital and Healthcare Association (Phoenix, Arizona). This document provides a sample business case for reducing ventilator-associated pneumonia.
“Strategies to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Acute Care Hospitals” (Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America/Infectious Diseases Society of America [SHEA/IDSA]) The intent of this document is to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist acute care hospitals in implementing and prioritizing their ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) prevention efforts. Refer to the SHEA/IDSA “Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections” Executive Summary and Introduction and accompanying editorial for additional discussion.
Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP): Best Practice Strategies for Caregivers (Kimberly-Clark Health Care) [PDF, 424KB] This best-practice document was developed by Kimberly-Clark Health Care and discusses the principles and strategies which make Best Practice possible. It outlines these strategies and discusses their impact on VAP.
“Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia” (American Hospital Association, Hospitals in Pursuit of Excellence) The site provides case studies, initiatives, campaigns, toolkits, methodologies, and other tools and resources to support reduction in ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Preventing Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in the United States: A Multicenter Mixed-Methods Study (University of Michigan) This study determines what practices are used by hospitals to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and, through qualitative methods, to understand more fully why hospitals use certain practices and not others.
“Preventing Health Care Acquired Infections” (Society of Hospital Medicine) This toolkit provides practical strategies, guidelines, and tools for reducing VAP.
“Ventilator-Associated Pneumonias (VAP)” (Johns Hopkins Medicine) Describes and links to the VAP Opportunity Estimator, which estimates yearly numbers of deaths, dollars and ICU days attributable to ventilator-associated pneumonias within an ICU, hospital, or health care system. In addition, the Opportunity Estimator quantifies the potential impact of VAP interventions by calculating the number of infections, deaths, dollars, and ICU days that could be prevented if the VAP rate was reduced.

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