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The information contained in these resources does not necessarily reflect the views of the Partnership for Patients, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, The United States Department of Health and Human Services, nor the United States government.

Surgical Site Infections
Title Description
“Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection, 1999” (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]) The “Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection, 1999” presents the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)’s recommendations for the prevention of surgical site infections (SSI).
“Frequently Asked Questions about Surgical Site Infections” (CDC) This Web site includes FAQs about surgical site infections.
“Having Surgery? What You Should Know Before You Go” (CDC) A guide created by the CDC to protect yourself and your loved ones from infections related to surgery.
Surgical Site Infection (SSI) Toolkit (CDC) This CDC Toolkit is organized as a PowerPoint document and includes SSI prevention strategies.
“National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN)” (CDC) The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) is a secure, internet-based surveillance system that integrates and expands legacy patient and healthcare personnel safety surveillance systems managed by the Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion (DHQP) at CDC. NHSN also includes a new component for hospitals to monitor adverse reactions and incidents associated with receipt of blood and blood products. Enrollment is open to all types of healthcare facilities in the United States, including acute care hospitals, long term acute care hospitals, psychiatric hospitals, rehabilitation hospitals, outpatient dialysis centers, ambulatory surgery centers, and long term care facilities.
“How-to Guide: Prevent Surgical Site Infection” (Institute for Healthcare Improvement [IHI]) This how-to guide describes key evidence-based care components for preventing surgical site infections, describes how to implement these interventions, and recommends measures to gauge improvement.
“How-to Guide: Prevent Surgical Site Infection — Pediatric Supplement” (IHI) How-to guide tailored specifically for pediatricians describes key evidence-based care components for preventing surgical site infections, describes how to implement these interventions, and recommends measures to gauge improvement.
“World Health Organization (WHO) Surgical Safety Checklist and Getting Started Kit” (IHI) The aim of this checklist is to reinforce accepted safety practices and foster better communication and teamwork between clinical disciplines. The checklist is intended as a tool for use by clinicians interested in improving the safety of their operations and reducing unnecessary surgical deaths and complications.
“Infection Prevention: Surgical Site Infection” (IHI) This Web site includes a table that allows facilities the ability to quickly find a mentor in the area of SSI prevention with similar demographics.
“Changes to Prevent Surgical Site Infection” (IHI) This Web site includes a number of changes facilities can implement to prevent SSI.
“Prevent Surgical Site Infection” (IHI) This Web site includes a number of tools from IHI to aid a facility in SSI prevention.
Surgical Site Infection Prevention Bundle (Health Protection Scotland) Procedures and checklists created by Health Protection Scotland to help prevent SSI.
“Surgical Care Improvement Program (SCIP)” (QUPS) The SCIP program is sponsored by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) in collaboration with a number of other national partners, including the American Hospital Association (AHA), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), The Joint Commission (TJC) and others. SCIP is an extension of a previous CMS initiative called the Surgical Infection Prevention Project (SIPP). This Web site includes a number of tools and resources to aid in the education and prevention of SSI.
Prevent Surgical Site Infections: Getting Started Kit (Safer Healthcare Now!) Safer Healthcare Now! is a national program supporting Canadian healthcare organizations to improve safety through the use of quality improvement methods and the integration of evidence in practice. This “Getting Started Kit” has been written to help engage your interprofessional/interdisciplinary teams in a dynamic approach for improving quality and safety while providing a basis for getting started in SSI Prevention.
“Why Not The Best? Quality Improvement Resources for Healthcare Professionals” (The Commonwealth Fund) This Web site presents case studies that enable hospitals to learn from other hospitals about successful strategies to create safe, reliable health care processes. Hospitals can browse case studies by topic.
“Reducing Surgical Site Infections: Mercy Health Center” (IHI) Case study that describes how Mercy Health Center (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) reduced post-surgery infections by 78% in one year by redesigning systems of care using rapid cycle improvement.
“Reducing Healthcare-Associated MRSA Infections on a Surgical Unit” (IHI) Case study that describes how St. John's Regional Center (Springfield, Missouri) reduced hospital-acquired infections through their work in an IHI Learning and Innovation Community on Reducing Hospital-Acquired Infections.
Closing the Quality Gap: A Critical Analysis of Quality Improvement Strategies (Vol. 6: Prevention of Healthcare-Acquired Infections) (National Institutes of Health, National Center for Biotechnology Information) This analysis discusses the effects that quality improvement strategies have had on interventions for prevention of surgical site infections (SSI), central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI).
“Attacking MRSA Through Positive Deviance” (Hospitals in Pursuit of Excellence [HPOE]) Case study from Albert Einstein Medical Center that discusses how the organization tackled MRSA using a concept known as “positive deviance.”
“Collaboration to Prevent Infections” (HPOE) Case study from Bronson Methodist Hospital (Kalamazoo, MI) that describes how the Keystone Center for Patient Safety and Quality partnered with the Michigan Health and Hospital Association and Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan to decrease HAI throughout Michigan.
“Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals” (University of Chicago Press, Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology) The article highlights practical recommendations in a concise format to assist acute care hospitals to implement and prioritize their surgical site infection (SSI) prevention efforts. This journal is available for purchase.
“NSQIP” (American College of Surgeons, National Surgical Quality Improvement Program) The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) is a risk-adjusted data collection mechanism that collects and analyzes clinical outcomes data. Participating hospitals use their collected data to develop quality initiatives that improve surgical care. ACS NSQIP is dedicated to offering hospitals the right tools to assist in measuring relevant clinical data that helps deliver the highest quality of care for their patients. ACS NSQIP now offers data collection options to accommodate hospitals of various sizes and resources.
Guide for the Prevention of Mediastinitis Surgical Site Infections Following Cardiac Surgery (Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), Guide from the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC). The purpose of this guide is to help the infection preventionist to implement evidence-based strategies that minimize the risk of postoperative mediastinitis following cardiac surgery procedures in the inpatient hospital setting.
Guide to the Elimination of Orthopedic Surgical Site Infections (APIC) Guide from the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC). The purpose of this guide is to provide practical tools, strategies, and resources for infection preventionists, care providers, surgical staff, and quality improvement teams to use in their efforts to eliminate surgical site infections in orthopedic surgery.

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